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C. Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900
Key Concept 5.1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism
Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
I. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced.
A. A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production. Required examples of factors leading to the rise of industrial production:
B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.
D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.
E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.
II. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
A. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods. (examples of the production and export of single natural resources: cotton, rubber, palm, oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals)
B. The rapid development of steam-powered industrial production in European countries and the U.S. contributed to the increase in these regions’ share of global manufacturing. While Middle Eastern and Asian countries continued to produce manufactured goods, these regions’ share in global manufacturing declined. (examples of decline of Middle Eastern and Asian share in global manufacturing: shipbuilding in Indian and Southeast Asia, iron works in India, textile production in India and Egypt)
C. The global economy of the 19th century expanded dramatically from the previous period due to increased exchanges of raw materials and finished goods in most parts of the world. Some commodities gave merchants and companies based in Europe and the U.S. a distinct economic advantage. (examples of commodities that contributed to the expansion of the 19th century global economy: opium produced in the Middle East or South Asia and exported to China, cotton grown in S. Asia, Egypt, the Caribbean, or N. America and exported to Great Britain and other European countries, palm oil produced in Sub-Saharan Africa and exported to European countries)
D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers. (Examples of mining centers: copper mines in Mexico, gold and diamond mines in South Africa)
III. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.
A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.
B. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses that relied on various financial instruments. (Examples of transnational businesses: the United Fruit Company based in the US and operating in Central America, Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) founded by British bankers; examples of financial instruments: stock markets, insurance, gold standard, limited-liability corporations)
IV. There were major developments in transportation and communication including railroads, steamships, telegraphs, and canals.
V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.
A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed industrialist’ treatment of workers by promoting alternative visions of society, including Marxism. (Examples of alternative visions: utopian socialism, anarchism)
B. In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production, while other members of the Qing and Ottoman governments led reforms in imperial policies. (examples of reforms: the Tanzimat movement in the Ottoman Empire, the Self-Strengthening movement in the Qing Empire)
C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. (Examples of state-sponsored visions of industrialization: the economic reforms of Meiji Japan, the development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, Muhammad Ali’s development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt).
D. In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types of reforms. (Examples of reforms: state pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of suffrage in Britain, public education in many states).
VI. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.
A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.
B. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.
C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions.
Key Concept 5.2 - Imperialism and Nation-State Formation
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.
I. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires.
A. States with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies. (Examples of states with existing colonies: British in India, Dutch in Indonesia)
B. European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined. (Examples of European states that established empires: British, Dutch, French, German, Russian)
C. Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa. (Examples of European States that established empires in Africa: Britain in West Africa, Belgium in the Congo)
D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies. (Examples of Europeans who established settler colonies: the British in southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, the French in Algeria)
E. In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism. (Examples of industrialized states practicing economic imperialism: the British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium Wars, the British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America).
II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.
A. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan.
B. The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories.
C. Anti-imperial resistance took various forms, including direct resistance within empires and the creation of new states on the peripheries. (Examples of resistance and new states: the Cherokee Nation, the Zulu Kingdom, the establishment of independent states in the Balkans.)
III. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism.
Key Concept 5.3 - Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform
The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-imperial tendencies of this period.
I. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments.
A. Enlightenment philosophers applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life; they also critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation. Other Enlightenment philosophers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract.
B. The ideas of Enlightenment philosophers, as reflected in revolutionary documents—including the American Declaration of Independence, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter—influenced resistance to existing political authority.
C. Enlightenment ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which contributed to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and the end of serfdom.
II. Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations. (Examples of nationalism: German, Italian, Filipino, Argentinean)
III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.
A. Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments. (Example of subjects challenging imperial government: the challenge of the Marathas to the Mughal Sultans, the challenge of Taipings to the Manchus of the Qing dynasty)
B. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions—including the American Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Latin American independence movements – that facilitated the emergence of independent states in the U.S., Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy.
C. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. (Example of slave resistance: the establishment of Maroon societies, North American slave resistance)
D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anti-colonial movements. (Examples of anti-colonial movements: the Indian Revolt of 1857, the Boxer Rebellion in Qing China)
E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by diverse religious ideas. (Examples: the Ghost Dance in the U.S., the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement in southern Africa)
IV. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism.
B. Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies. (Examples of such demands: Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Olympe de Gouges’s “Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen,” the resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848)
Key Concept 5.4 - Global Migration
Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. Migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people.
I. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.
A. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population in both urban and rural areas.
B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the 19th century. The new methods of transportation also allowed for many migrants to return, periodically or permanently, to their home societies. (Examples of return migrants: Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, Italian industrial workers in Argentina)
II. Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons.
A. Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work.(Examples: manual laborers, specialized professionals)
B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semi-coerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor.
III. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the 19th century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations.
A. Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.
B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks. (Examples of ethnic enclaves: Chinese in Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, South America, and North America; Indians in East and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia)
C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders. (Examples of attempts to regulate immigrants: the Chinese Exclusion Acts, the White Australia Policy)